Ethics

INTRODUCTION

In general ethics is a code of honour that people live by. According to Stanford Encyclopedia, 2019, philosophers have tried to define ethics in various ways. Socrates characterises ethics as choosing “How one should lead his life?”. Aristotle refers to ethical system as being naturally “self-realisationism”. To sum up ethics can be defined as guidelines for recognising between what is morally right and wrong, what is responsible and irresponsible, and what is positive or negative by and large.

What characterises ethical from unethical behaviour can be shaped in early adolescence and carry through to adulthood. The elements that characterise ethical behaviours are diverse, but all elements join together when an individual makes a last conclusion on how to act. Whereas the reasons are various, they are not difficult to understand (Oldhand, 2019). Ethics, also termed moral philosophy or the science of morals, is the part of philosophy that studies morality through the critical examination of good and bad in human deed (Fieser, 2019).

According to Roberts (2016), a more extensive definition would be that ethics includes the standards or suppositions supporting the way people or groups should behave. In the present nonstop evolving world, the one thing that remaining parts steady for a large portion of us is our own value system of convictions, known as ethics. Ethics can likewise be referred to as morals. Along these lines, ethics are those morals that reflect and show issues that concerning practices that are right or wrong and the good and bad habits of individual character. This critical standard of convictions can much of the time make the distinction in attitudes from others both positively and negatively. There can be contradictions around these qualities that can prompt fights, heated discussions and arguments in which there are separating opinions of what is correct or wrong.

Individual ethics is a category of philosophy that figures out what an individual accepts about morality and what is right and wrong. This is normally recognised from business ethics or legal ethic. These parts of ethics originate from outside associations or governments, not the individual’s soul. These parts of ethics every so often overlap each other. Individual ethics can influence all everyday issues, including family, finances and relationships.

There are many factors that can influence any individual that can affect their well-being and the future path to their life. Some of them will directly and indirectly impact their life decisions. According to OUM, 2013 formation of individual ethics can be influence by these factors, firstly family influence begins early in any individual to shape their moral norms from adolescence accordingly to their view of their parents’ practices. Secondly, at the point when children enter school and approaching their teen, they are influenced by friends with whom they interact each day, peer influences will definitely impact their moral growth. Thirdly, life experiences both constructive and adverse, shape individuals live and impact their moral convictions and conduct. These events are some portion of growing up and developing. Fourthly, personal value and morals also influence a person’s ethical standards. Lastly, the final determinant of an individual’s ethics is situational factors.

Here we will be only discussing three main factors that form a person’s individual ethics they are family influences, peer influences and life experiences.

FAMILY INFLUENCE 

Ethical values from unethical conduct can be shaped in early childhood and carries throughout the lifetime. The family is an where we begin most of us begins to learn basic human values, culture as well as ethical climate of the family as well as of the broader environment is moulded, and where the first social connections are shaped, which is vary from relationships with individuals outside the family circle. The procedure of family education and childhood form the establishment for the focused desires for each and every family member whereupon the trust and firmness of family relations are formed. The family system shapes fundamental principles, fundamental values, which can be viewed as the rules in setting the vision, mission and objectives of an individual.

In view of the significance of the family influence on the ethical atmosphere and culture of a family system, without a doubt it is influenced through the family fundamental values. The family system shapes essential standards, core beliefs, which can be viewed as the rules in setting the vision, mission and objectives of a family undertaking.

According to Strong Bonds (2019) family dynamics are the examples of relating, or cooperation, between family members. Every family are dynamics and unique in every way, although there are some common patterns. All families have some supportive and some unhelpful, or even abusive elements. Indeed, even where there is practically little or no present contact with family, a youngster will have been influenced by observing family members in their early years. Family dynamics regularly have a strong impact on the manner in which youngsters see themselves, others and the world, and will also impact their relationships, practices and their own wellbeing. An understanding of the effect of family influence on a youngster’s self-perception may enable to pinpoint and react to the driving force behind a youngster’s ethical behaviour.

Those who are brought up in loving, caring and non-abusive households, generally display socially appropriate ethical behaviour. Conversely, those brought up in dysfunctional families tend to revolt and display unethical behaviour.

For example, father and son that are close to each other and will go everywhere together. If the father has a bad habit of spitting anywhere he like, the son will have the tenancy to copying the father’s bad habit without knowing the circumstances of doing so. For the son spitting around is a normal to him because he sees his father doing it every time. The consequence of this is the son has developed a lower ethical standard due to the father’s influence.

Another good example of this is when the mother is very hot-tempered individual who always scolded and like to yell when speaking to the children. This acted will definitely have an impact to the children’s moral. The children might mimic the mothers’ attitude of being hot-tempered or the children could also develop a low self-esteem. So, a proper parenting with a good example on the family system is will definitely dictate the development of the children’s good ethical behaviour.      

In perspective on the essentialness of the family influences on the moral setting and culture of a family system, without a doubt it is impacted through the family key values. The family system shapes crucial standards, center beliefs, which can be seen as the rules in shaping the vision, mission and destinations of a family undertaking. The method of family education and childhood structure the foundation for the formation for every single relative whereupon the trust and solidness of family relations are framed. Moral qualities from untrustworthy direct can be formed in early adolescence and conveys all through the lifetime. A comprehension of the impact of family influences on an adolescent’s self-recognition may empower to pinpoint and respond to the main motivation behind a youth’s ethical conduct.

PEER INFLUENCE

Peers influence also can set the standards and serve as reference for individual behaviour and important to determine the individual life. On a certain period of childhood life, they will be exposed to an external influence when they have reached their schooling age. Their interaction with other can be affected by their personalities and attitudes toward learning and friendship among peers. They can also be motivated simply by studying next to each other and also could be a bad influence to them.

A typical student learns from discussions with classmates this can motivate elevate their attitudes toward learning. Peer effects are important determinants of student outcome whether they will be successful in their study or not. For instance, study mates could have not really been a friend yet but rather study mates could also have more straightforward impact on accomplishment. Being seated next to a hard-working student may build one’s own hard-working ethic and performance. In addition, peers are additionally found to influence each other through specific mental capacities or identity attributes (Lam, 2012).

On the perspective of adult, peer influences can also be a factors in their ethical behaviour toward their adult life. If the young adult knows how evaluated what is right and what is wrong early in their childhood they will definitely would not have a problem evaluating ethical behaviour when they have reached adulthood. In a working environment, co-worker and employer could also be a factor in building individual ethics.

A recent research has shown the effect of peer among young adults and used a social learning, ”Monkey See, Monkey Do” point of view to break down the effect of peer influence on a person’s moral beliefs (O’Fallon & Butterfield, 2011). This research perceives the significance of peers, yet has not exactly analysed the impact of social network, and all the more especially a person’s structural position inside the system. Guided by this theory and research there are many individuals and a situational characteristics the will affect the willingness of one to be influenced by others’ unethical moral. Some individual who has a strong will power can resist the social influence and distance themselves to this unethical behaviours. This includes the people who has developed a good moral identity and was influence with a good peers influences in their younger time.

On the other hand, individual who look past essential standards, laws, or authority figures while deciding the ”right” action and depend rather on universal principles and qualities to control moral reasoning. Individuals at this level are less susceptible to social influence and are less likely to ‘‘go with the flow’’ and mimic others’ unethical behaviours.

An ongoing analysis has demonstrated the impact of peer among teens and utilised a social learning, ”Monkey See, Monkey Do” perspective to separate the impact of peer effect on an individual’s ethical convictions. Peer influence likewise can set the models and fill in as reference for individual conduct and vital to decide the individual life. Individuals at this dimension are less powerless to social influence and are less inclined to ”go with the flow” and impersonate others’ unethical practices. Some individual who has a solid resolve can oppose the social influence and separation themselves to this untrustworthy behaviours. On a specific period of childhood life they will be presented to an outer influence when they have achieved their certain age which unavoidable, this will forced them to observed and learn about moral behaviours.

LIFE INFLUENCE 

Every individual will begin their life journey from birth to death, we will go through many important events, both positive and negative (OUM, 2013). This will shape our lives and impact our ethical convictions and conduct. These events are the parts and partials of growing up, developing and maturing as a human being. The ethical characteristics and identity traits of each individual, as well as their culture and religious orientation will impact the personal and professional factors that influence their interaction with people. This will reflect the ethical decision-making process of any individual.

Every era has its particular ethical issues and subjects. They are incited by the dynamic advancement of social, religion, cultural and technological developments and changes in the life of individual. Hence, there can be numerous occasions throughout individual’s life that can impact their ethical moral belief (V. Mareva & M. Dimitrova, 2014). Each issue can differently affect how we to settle on right choice and in the meantime make an ethical decision. Through this we can gain knowledge of the rejection or acceptation of the situation either bad or good.

Religious institutions also have a profound affect the ethical beliefs of individuals during their life journey. Religious institutions have the explicit objective of showing individuals how to live an ethical lives as perceived by the religious hierarchy. Qualities and ethicals standards are imparted by religious elders and educators, by network, groups event and by religious writings and lessons (Ray, 2019).

However, since somebody showed you something or listened in to you when you needed it a few times does not generally make them a positive influence. Some of the time it is hard to deal with the different people throughout your life. A few people may dependably have your back in the event that you need to borrow cash, for instance, yet will never give you a chance to overlook it. These individuals are hard to classify. Attempt to consider how they affect you most of the time.

In life, recognise a positive influences is very important. What, specifically, made you feel good about being in that person’s company, being part of that culture, or being in that place, for example. Was it encouragement, a can-do spirit, a sense of belonging to something bigger than yourself, a sense of community? We need to examine these entries one by one to determine what our values are and what makes you happy. Then we can start to seek these things out out purpose in life with a proper ethical values.

As indicated by Hansen, 2019, on the off chance that you are feeling enabled by being around upbeat individuals, discover more of them or increase the time spent with those individuals. In case your leisure activities or interests fill you with a sense of calmness and well-being, at that point increment your time taking part in these practices. If you are looking out on the sea or strolling within the jungle has continuously brought you peace in your life, at that point spend more time there. It could seem counter-intuitive, but the more positive you ended up the more you may radiate happiness and peace. As this happens, more individuals will look for you out for company and good influence and you may also have a life influence to others. Life experience helps people differentiate between acceptable and unacceptable behaviour, between just and unjust. Ethics speaks to how we ought to live, that is, and how we ought to treat others and how we ought to run or manage our own lives.

Life influence occasions or events are the parts and partials of growing up, creating and developing as an individual. The moral attributes and character qualities of every individual, just as their way of life and religious belief will affect the individual and professional factors that influence their connection with other individuals. Subsequently, there can be various events for a throughtout individual’s life that can affect their ethical conviction. Religious establishments likewise have a significant effect the moral convictions of individual amid their life journey. Religious establishments also have the explicit goal of telling people the best way to carry on with a moral life as seen by the religious hierarchy order. Characteristics and moral norms are taught by religious elders and teachers, by networking, group meeting and by religious compositions and lessons will impact the individual life decision.

CONCULSION 

Values are an individual’s judgment or standard of conduct and behaviour. They are another individual factor that influences ethical behaviour (TAFE NSW, 2019). Morals are another individual trademark that can influence an individual’s ethics. Ethics are the standards rules to develop individuals because of cultural standards and values and are, generally, what individual gain from their adolescence, culture, training, religion, and so on. They are generally portrayed as positive or negative behaviour. Ethics is normative in nature, that is, it focuses on what ought to be the case rather than what is the case. People learn ethical norms at home, school, in social settings as they grow up. However each individual has a different interpretation of these norms as they are affected by the individual’s life experiences.

REFERENCES

Oldhand , T. (2019, February 23). Factors Influencing Ethical Behavior. Retrieved from Classroom: https://classroom.synonym.com/factors-influencing-ethical-behavior-8406887.html

Fieser, J. (2019, February 23). Ethics. Retrieved from Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: https://www.iep.utm.edu/ethics/

Roberts, L. W. (2016). A Clinical Guide to Psychiatric Ethics. American Psychiatric Association Publishing.

Strong Bonds. (2019, March 1). Understanding Families: Family Dynamics. Retrieved from Strong Bonds: http://www.strongbonds.jss.org.au/workers/families/familydynamics.pdf

Lam, C. (2012, March 2). Estimating Various Kinds of Peer Effects on Academic Performance. Albany: Albany Research paper. Retrieved from Albany Research paper: https://www.albany.edu/economics/research/seminar/files/chungsang.pdf

O’Fallon, M. J., & Butterfield, K. D. (2011). Moral Differentiation: Exploring Boundaries of the “Monkey See, Monkey Do” Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 379–399.

OUM. (2013). OUMM3203 Professional Ethics. Open University Malaysia (OUM).

V. Mareva, & M. Dimitrova. (2014). Factors Influencing an Ethical – Decision Making in Social Worker’s Practice. Trakia Journal of Sciences, Vol. 12, Suppl. 1, 452-455.

Ray, L. (2019, March 4). How Does Society Influence Ethical Beliefs? Retrieved from Classroom: https://classroom.synonym.com/how-does-society-influence-ethical-beliefs-12085898.html

TAFE NSW. (2019, March 5). Personal values, belief and attitudes. Retrieved from https://sielearning.tafensw.edu.au/MCS/CHCAOD402A/chcaod402a_csw/knowledge/values/values.htm

Hansen, F. (2019, March 5). How To Recognize The Positive And Negative Influences On Your Life. Retrieved from The Adrenal Fatigue Solution: https://adrenalfatiguesolution.com/positive-and-negative-influences/

Stanford Encyclopedia. (2019, March 5). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: https://plato.stanford.edu/index.html

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